Alexander Graham Bell was awarded a patent (#174,465) for the telephone in the United States in 1876. Before this invention, there had been many ideas, conceptual models and patent caveats about speaking telegraph, however, they were not practical and Bell's invention was granted a patent. Prior to this patent, Bell awarded a patent for transmitter and receivers for electric telegraphs. The first successful transmission of clear voice using a liquid transmitter was done on March 10, 1876.
The Homebrew Computer Club, one of the earliest computer hobbyist usergroup in Silicon Valley, had its first meeting at the garage of Gordon French in Menlo Park, California, on March 5, 1975. French was one of the founders of the club along with Fred Moore. The founders of Apple Inc., Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs, were members of the club and Wozniak made the debut of his early prototype of an Apple computer and Jobs persuaded Wozniak to sell this computer to the public, which led to the foundation of Apple Computer, as described in Walter Isaacson's Steve Jobs biography. Adam Osborne and Lee Felsenstein of Osborne Computer Corporation were members of the club. Jerry Lawson, the designer of the Fairchild Channel F video game console, was also a member of the club. The club was very instrumental to grow the silicon valley culture.
Compact Disk (CD) players and disks with 16 titles from CBS Records were released in the US market on March 2, 1983 by Sony and Philips. This was the milestone moment of digital audio revolution. It revolutionized the way of storing music and data and opened the era of optical storage devices. It was later expanded to store data such as CD-ROM, CD-R, CD-RW, Video CD, Super Video CD, PhotoCD, and PictureCD. Before the release in the US market, it was only available in Japan since October 1982. The CD technology was evolved from LaserDisc that was release by Sony in September 1976.
Yahoo! Inc. was founded by Jerry Yang and David Filo in January 1994 and was incorporated on March 1, 1995. The company started its web directory service with a website named "Jerry and Dave's Guide to the World Wide Web" in April 1994. Over time, Yahoo! acquired many internet companies and developed many services, however, some of the services were not so successful or discontinued, to name a few, Geocities, AltaVista, del.icio.us, MyBlogLog. Yahoo! is currently best known for its services like web portal, search, mail, news, photo and video sharing, groups, answers and maps. The largest portion of the company's revenue is from search advertising. Yahoo! is one of the pioneers of the World Wide Web and has been shaping the Internet industry.
The 1939 movie Gone with the Wind received 10 Academy Awards (8 competitive, 1 honorary and 1 technical) in the 12th Academy Awards on February 29, 1940. Of the 17 competitive awards, the movie had 13 nominations. This was the first movie that won more than five Academy Awards. The movie was one of the earliest major movie shot in colour and won the first Academy Award for Best Cinematography. The movie was directed by Victor Fleming and from a screenplay by Sidney Howard based on the Pulitzer-award winning novel of the same name by Margaret Mitchell. Among others, Clark Gable, Vivien Leigh, Leslie Howard, Olivia de Havilland and Hattie McDaniel were the main characters. It was the longest American sound movie with 3 hours and 44 minutes. It is the highest-grossing movie after inflation adjustment.
James Dewey Watson and Francis Harry Compton Crick, researchers at the Cavendish Laboratory of the University of Cambridge, announced to their colleagues that they found the molecular structure of the DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid), on February 28, 1953. DNA is a nucleic acid containing genetic instructions used in development and functioning of the all known living organisms except RNA viruses. Watson and Crick were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, along with Maurice Wilkins, for the discovery of the DNA molecular structure. Watson wrote the bestselling book The Double Helix about this discovery in 1968. The work done by Rosalind Elsie Franklin, a Cambridge graduate and researcher at King's College London, was critical for Watson and Crick to build the DNA model though her work had not been recognized for quite some time. Rosalind worked with Wilkins on the same research project with x-ray diffraction at King's College London.
The Labour Party was founded from the Trade Union Congress, which was well attended by various working-class and left-wing organizations, in 1900. The party is a centre-left social democratic and democratic socialist political party in the UK. Labour formed its first government in 1924 under the leadership of Ramsey MacDonald - the first Labour prime minister. The latest Labour government was led by Tony Blair and Gordon Brown between 1997 and 2010, which is known as the "New Labour" period. Blair is the longest serving Labour prime minister (for 10 years) and the only person to have led three consecutive victories in the general election. The party is a member of the Socialist International. Labour is current official opposition under the leadership of Ed Miliband.